The definition of violence varies widely; in the context of intimate pattern relationships, violence is the most defined as an act carried out with the intention or perceived intention of causing physical pain or injury to another person (Douglas, 2010). The general definition of violence includes physical violence, sexual violence, and physical and sexual violence (Barnett, Miller-Perrin, and Perrin, 2005).
Domestic violence is one of the increasing public health concerns that affect all people, but the most vulnerable population of this health concern is women and children. The prevenance domestic violence in the world estimated by the world health organization as follow, a complete intimate partner violence range 20% in the Western Pacific, 22% in high-income countries, and Europe 25% in the WHO(World Health Organization) regions of the Americas to 33% in the WHO African region, 31% in the WHO western Mediterranean area, and 33% in the WHO South-East Asia region. However, the report of these data only the report collected by the world health organization, some of the collection methods used in finding the reported document from governing official and health organization. Unfortunately, domestic violence could be an under-covered crime. Most of the victims will not be able to say enough to the criminal; the incidence will cause additional risk. Criminal could be the family members, governing officials, or powerful individuals who will have power over the victim to cause the problem even complicated. Simultaneously economic difficulty in initiating the crime investigation and its character of systemic application of the violence the women and children will always be the target of the crime. Especially, the main reason this article focused on domestic violence against women and children is their vulnerability prevalence range higher than others.
Safe reporting of violence, retrieved from world health organization
What are the main characteristics of domestic violence?
Domestic violence could be systematic, which means it will hide the violence from the public view and hard to investigate; when domestic violence is associated with a family member or caregiver, the issue will create fear, normalization of abuse, and shame. Also, Intimidation, low self-esteem, lack of resources, disability, immigration status, cultural context, children, and love for the partner are some of the issues that make an investigation and reporting difficult (National domestic violence hotline, 2020). Each of these elements will be a crucial factor that helps the criminal could hide from justice. Most of the time, the fear of financial dependency is the victim of the violence due to their childcare and economic dependence on the child's father. The fear of filing a charge against the criminal covered as the investigation could lead the violent to a jail sentence or imprisonment. The spouse of the child-mother develops a fear of separation and economic difficulty to take care of her family. Therefore, giving up the report against violence will hide the crime.
The character of a criminal. Based on the circumstance of an issue, the criminal will not stop violating others' rights. When we look up to the domestic violence related to family group intimidation, the dominant group will be continuous with its character as the subordinate weaken oneself to normalize the issue—developed this character due to fear and dependency. In some cultures, women are inferior to men, who will limit their rights based on the cultural description. For example, childcare is solely the responsibility of women as a universal norm during child growth period the men will take the dominance character to not the support. Due to the financial obligation fall on the men's side, he will take that as a guaranty for his spouse's inferiority which the spouse also takes the option as the last chance to survive. On the other hand, the man could be married to other women anytime, even while he is in a relationship which the option is limited for women. The separation after marriage and children is tough for women than men; these norms make women fail to report abusive relationships.