The Center for Disease Control and prevention is one of the public health organizations and the primary source of information in the health care system. The article on violence prevention has a different subtopic which the organization classified based on the character of the issue and solution factors. The CDC focuses prevention of the problem by utilizing various methods, which include the public health approach. The public health approach has four steps; the first is to define and monitor the situation under this approach, understanding the problems with who, what, when, where, and how questions; we collect data and identify the source of violence. The second approach is identity risk and protective factors; in this approach, we learn the magnitude of the problem, risk factor identification, and protective factor identification. The third approach is to develop and test prevention strategies to help research and collect data. The last approach is widespread adoption, which includes training, networking, technical assistance, and evaluation.
(Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2022)
The national Forum on Youth violence prevention also has a great approach that focuses on the young generation with discipline and long-standing impacts. Some of the principles under these programs are, first, Multidisciplinary partnerships are crucial to tackling this complex issue: policies, educators, public health and other services providers, faith and community leaders parents' kids to discuss the issue.
The second principles are communities must balance and coordinate their prevention, intervention, enforcement, and reentry strategies. And lastly, to collect data and evidence-based strategies. These programs are coordinated with communities and established by the government. The public health providers help the programs by providing evidence-based strategies and scientific methodologies to accomplish the forum's goals. (National Forums on Youth violence Prevention , 2016)
The world Health organization is one of the largest public organizations with extraordinary health care data and health information. Utilizing such legends sources to teach and refer to sensitive topics such as violence prevention will provide adequate information and prevention methods. The WHO, violence prevention methods, and resources are located under the social determinate of health with various topics and important information. The critical issues under violence prevention narrated preventing violence against children, which the effective program that involves different countries around the globe and most the world language also got the interpreted links. The source of this topic of Inspire has so many organizations involvement or contribution. Some large organizations include World Finance, USAID, UNICEF, CDC, PERFAR, and many more. Inspire is an evidence-based pin preventing and responding to violence against children and adolescents. Such programs are helpful in the prevention of any kinds of violence that is going around the globe (World Health organization, 2016)
Reducing Gun Violence: What Can Be Done Now
The American Institutes for Research (AIR) is nonpartisan, a non-profit organization that conducts behavioral and social science research and delivers technical assistance to solve some of the most urgent challenges in the USA and around the globe. One of their articles narrates the most critical and steadily growing public issue of gun violence. Dr. Campie, a principal researcher in the human service program and member of the global armed conflict and violence prevention research advisory, shared her latest article in strategic communities, schools, employers, and cities. The topic discusses the issue of gun violence extremity and strategic plans to prevent the problem. Some of the recommended gun violence mitigation programs are education and training of youth and adults. The safe and successful youth initiative program is one of the outstanding organizations with the research confirmation of fewer violent crimes in the SSYI crimes in SSYI group. (American institutes for research , 2022)
Healthy people,2030 is one of the most extensive public health programs that research multiple public health issues with an ambitious goal of attaining healthy, thriving lives and well-being, eliminating health disparities, and promoting healthy development. This incredible organization is implemented by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the office of disease prevention and health promotion. The health people 2030 program stated that almost 20,000 people die from homicide yearly in the United States, and many more are injured by violence. The program also has an excellent intervention plan to reduce violence and keep people safe at home, school, workplace, and community. (Healthy People 2030, 2022).
American institutes for research . (2022, 02 22). Reducing gun violence: What can be done now . Retrieved from AIR: https://www.air.org/resource/spotlight/reducing-gun-violence-what-can-be-done-now
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022, 01 18). CDC. Retrieved 07 28, 2022, from https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/about/publichealthapproach.html
Healthy People 2030. (2022). Violence prevention . Retrieved from Health people 2030: https://health.gov/healthypeople/objectives-and-data/browse-objectives/violence-prevention
National Forums on Youth violence Prevention . (2016). Retrieved from Youth Topics : https://youth.gov/youth-topics/preventing-youth-violence/national-forum-for-youth-violence-prevention
prevention, C. f. (2022, January 18). CDC. Retrieved 07 28, 2022, from https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/about/publichealthapproach.html
World Health Organization . (2016, October 26). INSPIRE: Seven strategies for Ending Violence Against Children. Retrieved from World Helath Organization : https://www.who.int/activities/preventing-violence-against-children
World Health organization. (2016, October 26). Inspire Seven Strategies for Ending Violence Against Childrens. Retrieved 07 2022, from World Health Organization: file:///Users/endrissalia/OneDrive/Ending%20Violence%20agnaist%20children.pdf
Major public health issues
The article's literature review will analyze significantly researched topics such as health equity, climate changes, children's health, creating the healthiest nation, gun violence, and racial equity. The issue selected for the literature review is from the American public health association database. Health equity is a public health program that advocates health care for underserved communities. According to the 2017 American society of civil engineers' infrastructure report card, nearly one-fourth of the U.S. public health-school building systems are in fair or poor conditions. Students in these public health schools are more likely to be of color or from low-income families (American public health association, n.d.). The quality of the physical structure of the school affects the student in different ways, such as health effects due to the specks of dust and debris causing pneumonia, allergies, asthma, and physical damage, psychological development, not filling safe and poor lighting or poor spaces to navigate, social effects such as transparency, salacity, scaping class, poor outdoor activities area and environmental pollution.
According to the U.S. Department of education office for the civil right data of 2018, the number of incidents of serious offenses based on the type of incident shows as such; physical attack, fight without a weapon 787,200, robbery with a firearm or explosive device 250, the threat of physical attack with a gun, 10, 400, sexual assaults 9,300 and many more. This data also shows that 230 schools, or 0.2 percent, reported at least one incident involving a school-related shooting. According to these issues, the U.S. Department of education office for civil Rights talks about the proportion of incidents reported with the high rate of the direct effect on minority groups of people who live in poverty. The American Public Health Association listed the critical points of inequities, such as discrimination beliefs in race, class, gender, immigration status, disability, etc. Second high community crime/violence and aggressive policing. Three residential segregation, unemployment, substandard housing/ schools, limited access to healthy foods, limited transportation, concentrated pollution, and inadequate access to quality medical care. Lastly, offering ongoing culturally informed and population-specific professional development for staff.
Source. U.S. Department of education office of civil right data was collected from 2015-2016.
The American public health Association's mission is to improve the public's health and achieve equity in health status for Americans. The United States ranks 43rd in the world on health indicators of average life expectancy at birth. However, what is healthy life expectancy? According to the National Library of Medicine Nations Center for Biotechnology Information definition, healthy life expectancy is the expected number of remaining years of life spent in good health from a particular age, typically birth or age sixty-five, assuming current rates of mortality and morbidity (Stiefel MC, Perla RJ, Zell BL, 2010). However, health disparities contribute high economic costs to the U.S. every year as avoidable health disparities include medical expenses related to preventable chronic health diseases and the overutilization of health care resources. The inequities that affect the racial, gender, socio-economical, and factors lower our quality of life. According to the national minority house data, the health insurance coverage for a minority group is significantly lower than for the white population. Lack of health insurance causes disproportionated health care. Primary physician care is usually related to health insurance; anyone who doesn't have basic insurance will not be able to see the doctor for non-emergency health problems and annual physical checkups. According to the U.S. Department of Commerce, Wilbur ross's secretary report on health insurance coverage in the united states in 2019 shows the below diagram.
The report shows the significant gap between the uninsured population and the insured. Simultaneously, when it comes to inequities, health care proportion drastically drops among the minority groups, which leads to poor health care and a lack of primary physicians. The consequence of health inequities among the nation reflecting on the higher rate of youth obesity, growing diabetes among all age groups, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and related to this poor health can increase sudden death and disability from stroke, heart attack, or suicidal. Therefore, alarming the nation about a healthier lifestyle is essential. Furthermore, it closed the gap between health and equity social determinants, such as racism and discrimination, education, income, housing, and neighborhood conditions. Therefore, identifying and effectively addressing racism and implicit racial biases and adopting health in all policy approaches are some of the most critical points to achieving this public health goal.
According to the public health association database, around 88% of the global disease burden of climate change falls on children under five years. Climate change is a significant problem for public health there. Extreme weather, heat, vector-borne diseases, and poor air quality are some of the listed climate change impacts.
The last topic I would like to discuss in this article is that health crises relate to racism. According to the CDC report, the overall Dallas County vulnerability in socioeconomic status is 56 percentile, healthcare infrastructure at 56 percentile, and medical exposure at 22 percentile. Such data help us to understand the risk factors that could happen shortly and helps to mitigate the risk factors with a clear understanding of our action plans.
Generally, as public health advocates understanding our society's problems and creating an action plan to mitigate them is essential. Health equity can be achieved from the perspective of the world health organization health for all—socioeconomic factors such as educational, environmental, racial, and other needs special attention of public health advocate. Similarly, climate change is the primary cause of drought, hunger pangs, and social injustice. The world health organization, with world public health advocates, has abundant research data and resources to solve climate change. It is imperative when the political and economic changes face preventing global health, public health leaders should remain firm and proactive.
American Public health Association. (n.d.). Creating The Healthiest Nation: Advancing Health Equity. https://www.apha.org/-/media/Files/PDF/factsheets/Advancing_Health_Equity.ashx
CDC. (2022). Story map
American public health association. (n.d.). We are creating The Healthiest Nation: Health and Educational Equity. American Public Health Association — For science. For action. For health. https://www.apha.org/-/media/Files/PDF/factsheets/Health_And_Educational_Equity.ashx
Stiefel, M. C., Perla, R. J., & Zell, B. L. (2010). A healthy bottom line: Healthy life expectancy as an outcome measure for health improvement efforts. PubMed Central (PMC). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2888015/
U.S. Department of education office for civil rights. (2018). U.S. Department of Education. https://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/school-climate-and-safety.pdf
US Census. (2019). Census.gov. https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2020/demo/p60-271.pdf